Anatomy of Knee
The knee joint is formed where the thigh bone (femur) meets the shin bone (tibia). A smooth cushion of articular cartilage covers the ends of both these bones. Healthy cartilage absorbs stress and allows the bones to glide across each other smoothly. This cartilage is kept slippery by joint fluid (synovial fluid) made by the joint lining (synovial membrane). The fluid is contained in a soft tissue enclosure around the knee called the joint capsule.
The ligaments give the knee stability, and the muscles power the knee and leg for movement.
The kneecap (patella) is the moveable bone on the front of the knee. It is situated within a tendon that connects the muscle on the front of the thigh (quadriceps) to the lower leg. The surface on the back of the patella is covered with articular cartilage also. It glides within a groove on the front of the femur.
Why joint replacement is needed?
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